e-book Le Français au pôle Sud / Le Pourquoi-pas ? dans lAntarctique (CLASSIQUES ARTH) (French Edition)

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Le Français au pôle Sud / Le Pourquoi-pas? dans l'Antarctique (CLASSIQUES ARTH) Jean-Baptiste Charcot. Kindle Edition. £ · Récit de l'extraordinaire et affligeant naufrage du baleinier Essex (French Edition) Format: Kindle Edition; File Size: KB; Print Length: pages; Publisher: Libretto; 1 edition (3.
Table of contents

The famous French literary titles listed here all contain cognates. Don't let them trap you into mistakes. Page 35 Chapter 4 Are Idioms for Idiots? Imagine a beautiful young woman walking along the Champs-Elysees, an elegant, tree-lined avenue in Paris. Two men approach from the opposite direction and look her up and down. Elle a du chien. She has just made a terrible mistake.

What she doesn't understand is the idiomatic expression avoir du chien, which in English means to be alluring, sexy. So what exactly is an idiom? In any language, an idiom is a particular word or expression whose meaning cannot be readily understood by either its grammar or the words used. Examples of some common English idioms are: To fall head over heels. To look on the bright side. On the other hand. To be down and out. Slinging Slang What's the difference between an idiom and slang? Slang refers to colorful, popular words or phrases that are not part of the standard vocabulary of a language.

Slang is considered unconventional. Many of these words evolved as needed to describe particular things or situations.


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Here are some examples of English slang: Get real! Give me a break! Tough luck! Get a life! What's the Difference Anyway? Idioms are acceptable in oral and written phrases, whereas slang, although freely used in informal conversations, is generally considered substandard in formal writing or speaking.

Much slang is, at best, x-rated. What Is It? Take a look at some of these popular expressions used in sentences. I'm sure that you will immediately realize that it would be impossible to translate them into French. Which are they, idioms or slang? You drive me crazy! Don't jump the gun! It's raining cats and dogs! She got angry and she lost it. Get a head start on the project. Keep your shirt on! I'm always on the go. He likes to play the field.

Can you buy some time? He's on his way up. Did you fall for it? Page 37 Did you recognize that these are idiomatic expressions that we use in English all the time? Good for you. Now compare those sentences with the ones below: Shucks! She just flipped out! My son is a computer geek. What a cop out! Don't dis my friend. That's tacky! Did you notice how these slang sentences differed from the idiomatic ones?

You probably won't be using much French slang, but the idioms sure will come in handy. There are a great many idioms in French. In this chapter we will look at six categories of idioms that you might find helpful: travel and transportation, time, location and direction, expressing opinions, physical conditions, and weather conditions. Other idiomatic expressions will appear in their appropriate chapters. And You're Off Let's say you are taking a trip. And, as we all know, that is truly impossible.

It pays to kn ow the French idioms to avoid this type of confusion. It is well worth your time to leam the idiomatic expressions covered in Table 4. Table 4. Your place of business or school 2. The movies 3. Your doctor 4. The nearest hospital 5. Europe a pied 6. The park 7. A tropical island 8. A fishing trip 9. A museum The library It's Time to.. As q Rule The preposition cn is usually used when you are traveling inside of something, such as a subway. Use a when you expect to feel your hair blowing in the breeze. For some travelers time is of the essence and they make sure they get that wake-up call bright and early in the morning.

They want to be on the go as soon as possible. For others, its not important at all. They don't even wear a watch. They're on vacation and time is simply unimportant. Whether you're time-conscious or not, the idioms in Table 4. What French idioms of time would you use in the following situations? When you leave a friend for the day you would say: 2. If your boss wants something done right away, he wants it done: 3.

If you have an interview at 9 a. If you go to the movies every once in a while, you go: 7. If you work all day long, you work: 8. Most men, of course, would never dream of asking for directions. They have to prove that they can find it themselves. So when my husband and I find ourselves off the beaten path, I'm the one who goes into the nearest gas station.

I like to kn ow exactly where I'm going and, if I get lost, I want precise directions. The idioms of location and direction in Table 4.

An Open Lab-Notebook Experiment

This list is for men, too. Page 40 Table 4. Below is a small map of a city street. There are six buildings to identify: Page 4 1 Le boulevard Victor Hugo i i i i i i i i la pStissene le cinema Rex la pharmacie Legrand le cafe Lebrun le restaurant Bonaparte le theatre Odeon le musee de l'art moderne Read the directions and label the buildings on le boulevard Victor Hugo: A gauche de la patisserie il y a le theatre Odeon.

Et a cote du theatre il y a le cafe Lebrun. En face du cafe se trouve le restaurant Bonaparte. A droite de la patisserie, il y a la pharmacie Legrand. A gauche du cinema et tout droit devant le theatre se trouve le musee de l'art moderne.

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So, What Do You Think? Everyone, at one time or another, has an opinion about something. Some people are certainly more expressive than others. Your friend has proposed some afternoon activities. How Do You Feel? Let's say you are freezing cold. Your French host would literally interpret what you said as that you are cold to the touch of a hand. Of course this sounds very strange and silly to us. Just remember, our idioms sound very off-beat to others. You will notice that all the idioms below begin with the verb avoir, which means to have.

Of course, it will be necessary to conjugate avoir as the subject of the sentence changes, but that will be discussed further in Chapter 9. For now, concentrate on how you feel — J'ai zhay, I have — using the expressions for physical conditions in Table 4.

Express how you feel, using idioms. Faire can be used with other subject nouns and pronouns, but not when discussing the weather. Travelers tend to be obsessed with weather, which makes sense given that many plans are contingent on it. The French way of discussing weather differs from ours. The French use the verb faire to make, to do to describe most weather conditions.

But in France, do as the French do as you study Table 4. Page 44 Table 4. Look at the weather map of France for the day. Tell what the weather will be in each of the cities listed below: 1. A Paris il fait 2. A Nice il fait 3. A Bordeaux il fait 4. A Strasbourg il fait 5. So expect a warm, rainy spring, a hot summer, a cool autumn, and a cold winter, and dress appropriately. Facial expressions and body language are also an important part of communicating feelings and emotions.

Many gestures perfectly convey certain French slang expressions without the use of words. These gestures play an important role in the French language: 1. Mon oeil. You can't fool me. J'en ai par-dessus la tete zhahN nay pahr-duh-sew lah teht I've had it up to here. Page 46 3. Au poil! C'est la barbe! Qu'est-ce que tu veux que j'y fasse? Kehs-kuh tew vuh kuh zhee fahs What do you want me to do about it? There's been a de-emphasis on grammatical rules and an emphasis on communication. Sure, that's how they tried to teach you in school way back when and it was pure drudgery.

But the powers that be have finally come to realize that communicating doesn't mean walking around with a dictionary under your arm. On the contrary, it means learning to use the language and its patterns the way a native speaker does. To do this, you need to know basic grammar as well as the idioms and colloquialisms used by native speakers. Page 48 Groping at Grammar When you hear the word grammar, do you get a sinking feeling in the pit of your stomach like when someone mentions math? Did you ever have the pleasure of diagramming a sentence? I still have very vivid memories of many seemingly useless grammatical terms.

You don't have to be an expert grammarian to leam a foreign language. All you really need is a basic understanding of four simple parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Now don't get all nervous. You'll see how simple it really is. Naming with Nouns Nouns refer to people, places, things, or ideas.

Just like in English, nouns can be replaced by pronouns he, she, it, they.

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Unlike English, however, all nouns in French have a gender. That means that all nouns have a SEX. That ought to grab your attention momentarily. Sorry to disappoint you, but in this case SEX refers to the masculine or feminine designation of the noun. In French, all nouns also have a number singular or plural.

But even if you can't figure out the gender of a noun, you will still be understood, as long as you use the correct word. You will leam more about gender in Chapter 6. Versatile Verbs Verbs are words that show action or a state of being. In both English and French, we conjugate verbs. In English, conjugating is so automatic because we've been doing it practically since birth that we don't even realize that we are doing it.

I had a friend who took four years of high school French and never understood the concept of verb conjugation she was absent that day. I explained it to her, and she realized that it's really quite simple. Conjugating means giving the correct fonn of the verb so that it agrees with the subject. For example: In English, we say I am but you are, he is, and so on; I look but she looks. It just doesn't work to mix and match the subjects and verb forms whether you are speaking English or French.

But don't despair.

Even if you use the wrong verb form, you will be understood. Verb conjugation will be explained in greater depth in Chapter 7. Appropriate Adjectives Adjectives help to describe nouns. Unlike English, in French all adjectives agree in number and gender sex with the nouns they modify. In other words, in a French sentence, all Page 49 the words have to match. If the noun is singular, then its adjective must also be singular. If the noun is feminine, then you must be sure to give the correct feminine form of the adjective you are using.

In English, adjectives are generally placed before the nouns they modify: for example, the blue house. In French, most adjectives come after the nouns they describe: for example, la maison bleue. Don't get nervous. If you make a mistake, you will still be understood. You will find out more about adjectives in Chapter 9. Active Adverbs Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

In English, most adverbs end in ly: for example, lie dances slowly. In French, they end in ment: II danse lentement. Adverbs will probably pose few problems as you leam the language. Adverbs are discussed in greater detail in Chapter Even if you don't know how to spell the word you're looking up, you usually stumble across it eventually.

But using a bilingual dictionary requires a certain, albeit minimal, amount of grammatical expertise. Believe it or not, an open-book dictionary test is probably harder than any test you would have to study for. To use a bilingual dictionary successfully, you must know and be aware of the differences between the various parts of speech. Putting Your Dictionary to Work The very first thing you should do is open to the front of your dictionary and find the list of abbreviations. Generally, there is a rather long, comprehensive list. There are only a few abbreviations that are truly essential and that need attention.

The gender of nouns will be explained in Chapter 6. The n. More on noun plurals in Chapter 6. A past participle is necessary when a verb is used in the past tense. An explanation follows in Chapter 2 1. Reflexive verbs will be treated in Chapter Now, let's see how well you can do with your bilingual French-English, English-French dictionary. Consider the following sentences and how the meaning of the word mean changes: That man is mean, adjective What can that mean?

That man is mean. Determine the part of speech. Did you choose an adjective? Now complete the French sentence: Cet homme est. The correct choice is mechant. What can that mean? In this sentence, did you select mean as a verb? You got it! The French sentence would read: Qu 'est-ce que qa peut. I hope you chose signifier. What is the mean?

Antarctique - Jean Baptiste Charcot

This term refers to the average of two numbers. Because the correct word is feminine, you will have to use the article la before the noun you choose. Articles will be discussed in Chapter 6. The French is: Quelle est la. The answer is moyenne. What is the means of transportation? Means is plural in English but masculine, singular in French. Use le before the noun you choose. The French is: Quel est de transport. The answer is le moyen. Page 5 1 As you can see, to successfully look up the meanings of the word you want to use, you must do three things: 1. Check to make sure that you are using the correct part of speech: noun, verb, adjective, or adverb.

Check your work by looking up the French word you have chosen and by verifying that the English meaning given is the one you want. Check that you are using the correct form of the word: the right number singular or plural and the right gender masculine or feminine. A Proper Workout with Your Dictionary Use a bilingual dictionary to see if you can find the correct word to complete each of the following French sentences. For now, I've supplied the proper articles. Write all verbs in the infinitive form. Look at the fire! The boss is going to fire the employee. There is water in the well.

He sings well. Regard le. Le patron va l'employee. Je vois la. Je vais le barbecue. Unlike English where girls are girls, and boys are boys, and everything else is neuter, every single noun person, place, thing, or idea in French is designated as masculine or feminine, singular or plural. How is this determination made?

Sometimes it's obvious, sometimes there are clues, and sometimes it's just downright tricky. This chapter will teach you to make the right connections. Page 54 Is It a Girl or a Boy? If you're speaking about a man or a woman, gender is obvious. But what if you want to talk about a lovely boutique you passed by the other day? There is no obvious clue to you as yet, telling you the gender of the word boutique. Do you assume that it's feminine because women like to go to boutiques?

In this day and age, that's a dangerous thing to do. There are, however, tricks for determining gender that you will learn as you read and study the chapter. As a Rule The word boutique ends in que — most French words with this ending arc feminine. Suppose that you want to purchase a tie that you saw in the boutique.

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It would be normal to assume that cravate is masculine because men wear ties more often than women do. But you would be wrong in your assumption. In fact, cravate is a feminine word. It doesn't. And unfortunately, there are no clues and no tricks to help you with this word and many others like it. So what do you do? You leam which endings are usually masculine and which are feminine, and for the others, you try to leam the word with its noun marker le [un] or la [une].

If you forget the noun marker, you can always resort to a good French dictionary. Just remember, even if you make a gender mistake, as long as you have the correct vocabulary word, you'll be understood. As a Rule Only singular noun markers show the gender of the noun. Noun Markers Noun markers are articles or adjectives that tell you whether a noun is masculine m. The most common markers, shown in Table 6. Therefore, you need to leam the indefinite article an or line for any word that begins with a vowel. Singular Nouns The nouns in Table 6.

Some nouns can be either masculine or feminine. To indicate whether you are speaking about a male or female, simply change the marker to suit the identity of the person, as listed in Table 6. La touriste female aussi prend des photos. Table 6. This means that you must choose the correct marker according to the person you are speaking about.

Let's take a look at an interesting sentence: Jacques Cousteau est une personne importante. Did you notice the use of the feminine indefinite article une? Are you perplexed? After all, Jacques Cousteau is a man. Shouldn't the indefinite article reflect this? Not really. The answer is simple, although somewhat unsatisfactory for men and women alike. Whether we agree or not, some nouns are always masculine or feminine no matter what the sex of the person to whom you are referring. This will require some memorization and practice on your part.

When you do this, there will be a change in the pronunciation of any feminine noun ending in a consonant. For the masculine noun, the final consonant is not pronounced. When the e is added to form the feminine, the consonant must then be pronounced. Another change is that the final nasal sound of a masculine in ending aN loses its nasality when the feminine ending becomes ine een. Observe these changes in Table 6.

Page 58 Table 6. Most of the feminine endings sound different, as you will notice in Table 6. Be very careful before you choose an ending. Remember, some nouns do not change. If you did well with this exercise, then it's time to continue. The good news is: There are no more rules. However, because most nouns in French do not follow any specific set of rules, you should learn them with their markers. And if you make a gender mistake, it's really not that serious — as long as you've chosen the correct noun, you'll be understood. When There's More Than One Noun When a French noun refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea, just like in English, it must be made plural.

But it is not enough to simply change the noun — the marker must be made plural, as well. As you study Table 6. Plural noun markers indicate only that the speaker is referring to more than one noun. This means that you must learn each noun with its singular noun marker. Plural Nouns Forming the plural of most nouns in French is really quite easy.

All you have to do is add an unpronounced s to the singular fonn: le gar? So what happens if you have a French noun that ends in one of these letters? Absolutely nothing! Don't pronounce the final s if you want your French to sound authentic. Practice makes perfect, so try to express that you see more than one of the things in the following list. Here are some nouns that might prove useful to you: les lunettes f.

Try your luck at telling someone what you are looking for: Example: boats Je cherche. Nouns and the pronouns used to replace them are very important because you can use them as the subject of a sentence. In this chapter, you will see how you can communicate your thoughts in French by using nouns or pronouns and the verbs that convey the actions that are being performed. To accomplish this, let's do something exciting.

Let's plan a trip. Planning and taking an imaginary trip to a French- speaking country will teach you how to get along in most everyday situations where you would need French. Picture the places you could go: the bustling cities, the sandy beaches, the medieval towns. Imagine the sites you could see: the museums, the cathedrals, the parks, the gardens; and the people you could meet: French, Canadians, Haitians, Africans. The possibilities are endless.

Let's start with the basics. Page 66 What's the Subject? You're on a group tour and everyone involved seems to have his or her own agenda. You would like to take pictures of the beautiful stained-glass windows of Notre Dame. The woman next to you, she insists on the Eiffel Tower. The couple to your right, they would prefer to spend the day shopping. And the tour guide, well, he's ust disgusted at this point. In order to express the things people do, you need to learn about verbs. The guide is waiting for us. The subject is understood to be you. A subject can be a noun or a pronoun that replaces the noun: The artist is painting a landscape.

He she is painting a landscape. Tu is called the familiar form. The u from tu is never dropped for elision: tu arrives. Vous is always used when speaking to more than one person, regardless of familiarity. Vous is referred to as the polite form. Page 67 Tu versus Vous Would you use tu or vous when speaking to the following people? A doctor? Your cousin? Your friend? A salesman? A woman waiting in line for a bus? Two friends? A policeman from whom you are asking directions? Your friends? Cultural Tidbits Tu is used by the French when speaking to their pets because they are consid- ered family members.

Pets are held in very high regard in France. It is not unusual at all to see a family accompanied by its dog in a French restaurant. Roger Dubuis. Richard Mille. Dior Grand Bal Couture. Cartier Libre. Audemars Piguet Sapphire Orbe. Bvlgari Bvlgari Ladies. Les Montres Femmes.

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